31-го января, в 13.00 в 420 аудитории, 1 корп. ННГУ состоится доклад Верхратского Алексея Несторовича (Манчестерский Университет, Великобритания).
Physiology and pathophysiology of neuroglia
The nervous system in mammals represents complex network formed by several distinct cell types of neural and non-neural origin. In the course of evolution from most primitive diffuse nervous system to the human brain these cellular types underwent remarkable degree of specialisation. Neurones become perfect elements for signalling and information processing, whereas housekeeping functions went to the neuroglia, which have themselves specialised into many types of cells to provide for specific aspects of nervous system homeostasis. Homeostatic function of neuroglia is executed at many levels, and includes whole body and organ homeostasis (for example astrocytes control the emergence and maintenance of the CNS, peripheral glia are essential for communication between the CNS and the body, and enteric glia are essential for every aspect of gastrointestinal function), cellular homeostasis (e.g. astroglia and NG2-glia are both stem elements), morphological homeostasis (glia define the migratory pathways for neural cells during development, shape the nervous system cyto-architecture, and control synaptogenesis/synaptic pruning, whereas myelinating glia maintain the structural integrity of nerves), molecular homeostasis (which is represented by neuroglial regulation of ion, neurotransmitter and neurohormone concentration in the extracellular spaces around neurons), metabolic homeostasis (e.g. neuroglial cells store energy substrates in a form of glycogen and supply neurones with lactate), long-range signalling homeostasis (by myelination provided by oligodendroglia and Schwann cells), and defensive homeostasis (represented by astrogliosis and activation of microglia in the CNS, Wallerian degeneration in CNS and PNS, and immune reactions of enteric glia, all these reactions providing fundamental defence for neural tissue). Moreover, some neuroglial cells act as chemosensitive elements of the brain that perceive systemic fluctuations in CO2, pH and Na+ and thus regulate behavioural and systemic homeostatic physiological responses. Since any brain disease results from failure in brain homeostasis, neuroglia are involved in many, if not all, aspects of neurological disorders and hence neuroglia may represent a novel target for medical intervention in treatment of neurological diseases.